Pheasants, grouse, and allies
Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae
These are terrestrial species of gamebirds, feeding and nesting on the ground. They are variable in size but generally plump, with broad and relatively short wings.
Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
Pigeons and doves
Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.
Order: Pterocliformes Family: Pteroclidae
Sandgrouse have small pigeon-like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes.
Order: Otidiformes Family: Otididae
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with “fingered” wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays.
Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails, and strong legs. The Old World cuckoos are brood parasites.
Nightjars and allies
Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Apodidae
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
Rails, gallinules, and coots
Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
Order: Gruiformes Family: Gruidae
Cranes are large, long-legged, and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or “dances”.
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Burhinidae
The thick-knees are a group of waders found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.
Stilts and avocets
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Recurvirostridae
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Haematopodidae
The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.
Plovers and lapwings
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Black-bellied plover (Tundrakurmitsa), Pluvialis squatarola
- European golden-plover (Kapustarinta), Pluvialis apricaria
- American golden-plover (Amerikankurmitsa), Pluvialis dominica (R)
- Pacific golden-plover (Siperiankurmitsa), Pluvialis fulva (R)
- Northern lapwing (Töyhtöhyyppä), Vanellus vanellus
- Sociable lapwing (Arohyyppä), Vanellus gregarius (R)
- White-tailed lapwing (Suohyyppä), Vanellus leucurus (R)
- Lesser sand-plover (Ylänkötylli), Charadrius mongolus (R)
- Greater sand-plover (Aavikkotylli), Charadrius leschenaultii (R)
- Caspian plover (Kaspiantylli), Charadrius asiaticus (R)
- Kentish plover (Mustajalkatylli), Charadrius alexandrinus (R)
- Common ringed plover (Tylli), Charadrius hiaticula
- Little ringed plover (Pikkutylli), Charadrius dubius
- Oriental plover (Gobintylli), Charadrius veredus (R)
- Eurasian dotterel (Keräkurmitsa), Charadrius morinellus
Sandpipers and allies
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Upland sandpiper (Preeriakahlaaja), Bartramia longicauda (R)
- Whimbrel (Pikkukuovi), Numenius phaeopus
- Little curlew (Taigakuovi), Numenius minutus (R)
- Eurasian curlew (Kuovi), Numenius arquata
- Bar-tailed godwit (Punakuiri), Limosa lapponica
- Black-tailed godwit (Mustapyrstökuiri), Limosa limosa
- Ruddy turnstone (Karikukko), Arenaria interpres
- Red knot (Isosirri), Calidris canutus
- Ruff (Suokukko), Calidris pugnax
- Broad-billed sandpiper (Jänkäsirriäinen), Calidris falcinellus
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper (Suippopyrstösirri), Calidris acuminata (R)
- Stilt sandpiper (Pitkäkoipisirri), Calidris himantopus (R)
- Curlew sandpiper (Kuovisirri), Calidris ferruginea
- Temminck’s stint (Lapinsirri), Calidris temminckii
- Long-toed stint (Siperiansirri), Calidris subminuta (R)
- Red-necked stint (Rusokaulasirri), Calidris ruficollis (R)
- Sanderling (Pulmussirri), Calidris alba
- Dunlin (Suosirri), Calidris alpina
- Purple sandpiper (Merisirri), Calidris maritima
- Baird’s sandpiper (Eskimosirri), Calidris bairdii (R)
- Little stint (Pikkusirri), Calidris minuta
- Least sandpiper (Amerikansirri), Calidris minutilla (H) (R)
- White-rumped sandpiper (Valkoperäsirri), Calidris fuscicollis (R)
- Buff-breasted sandpiper (Tundravikla), Calidris subruficollis (R)
- Pectoral sandpiper (Palsasirri), Calidris melanotos
- Long-billed dowitcher (Tundrakurppelo), Limnodromus scolopaceus (R)
- Jack snipe (Jänkäkurppa), Lymnocryptes minimus
- Eurasian woodcock (Lehtokurppa), Scolopax rusticola
- Great snipe (Heinäkurppa), Gallinago media
- Common snipe (Taivaanvuohi), Gallinago gallinago
- Wilson’s snipe (Amerikantaivaanvuohi), Gallinago delicata (R)
- Swinhoe’s snipe (Siperiankurppa), Gallinago megala (R)
- Terek sandpiper (Rantakurvi), Xenus cinereus
- Wilson’s phalarope (Amerikanvesipääsky), Phalaropus tricolor (R)
- Red-necked phalarope (Vesipääsky), Phalaropus lobatus
- Red phalarope (Isovesipääsky), Phalaropus fulicarius
- Common sandpiper (Rantasipi), Actitis hypoleucos
- Spotted sandpiper (Amerikansipi), Actitis macularius (R)
- Green sandpiper (Metsäviklo), Tringa ochropus
- Spotted redshank (Mustaviklo), Tringa erythropus
- Common greenshank (Valkoviklo), Tringa nebularia
- Willet (Preeriaviklo), Tringa semipalmata (R)
- Lesser yellowlegs (Keltajalkaviklo), Tringa flavipes (R)
- Marsh sandpiper (Lampiviklo), Tringa stagnatilis
- Wood sandpiper (Liro), Tringa glareola
- Common redshank (Punajalkaviklo), Tringa totanus
Pratincoles and coursers
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Glareolidae
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings, and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings, and long, pointed bills which curve downwards.
Skuas and jaegers
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large sea birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
Auks, murres, and puffins
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Alcidae
Alcidae are a family of seabirds which are superficially similar to penguins with their black-and-white colours, their upright posture, and some of their habits, but which are able to fly.
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, terns, and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish, bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.
- Black-legged kittiwake (Pikkukajava), Rissa tridactyla
- Ivory gull (Jäälokki), Pagophila eburnea (R)
- Sabine’s gull (Tiiralokki), Xema sabini (R)
- Slender-billed gull (Kaitanokkalokki), Chroicocephalus genei (R)
- Black-headed gull (Naurulokki), Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Little gull (Pikkulokki), Hydrocoloeus minutus
- Ross’s gull (Ruusulokki), Rhodostethia rosea (R)
- Laughing gull (Nokisiipilokki), Leucophaeus atricilla (R)
- Franklin’s gull (Preerianaurulokki), Leucophaeus pipixcan (R)
- Mediterranean gull (Mustanmerenlokki), Ichthyaetus melanocephalus(R)
- Audouin’s gull (Välimerenlokki), Ichthyaetus audouinii (R)
- Common gull (Kalalokki), Larus canus
- Herring gull (Harmaalokki), Larus argentatus
- Yellow-legged gull (Etelänharmaalokki), Larus michahellis (R)
- Caspian gull (Aroharmaalokki), Larus cachinnans
- Iceland gull (Grönlanninlokki), Larus glaucoides (R)
- Lesser black-backed gull (Selkälokki), Larus fuscus
- Slaty-backed gull (Ohotanlokki), Larus schistisagus (R)
- Glaucous gull (Isolokki), Larus hyperboreus
- Great black-backed gull (